Anarchism is a radical left-wing movement that has a strong anti-authoritarian, anti-statist, and libertarian interpretation of socialism, communism, individualism, collectivism, mutualism, participism, and syndicalism. Anarchists support personal property based on mutualist usufruct, which refers to possession and use of property, but they oppose private ownership of productive property such as the means of production (capital, land, and labour) which is viewed as a fundamental aspect of capitalism.
In contrast to anarcho-capitalists, anarchists retain the labour theory of value and socialist doctrines, rejecting capitalism as a system that reproduces economic activity that they see as oppressive. Capitalist institutions such as private property, hierarchical production relations, collection of rents from private property, taking a profit in exchanges, and collecting interest on loans are viewed by anarchists as promoting and reproducing forms of economic oppression. They believe that the ruling class, including capitalists, landlords, and other coercive hierarchical systems, are the primary rulers of society. To remove such authority, anarchists endorse workers’ self-management, democratic education, and cooperative ideas.
Unlike right-libertarians, anarchists endorse possession-based ownership rather than propertarianism. Possession-based ownership means that ownership is based on use, while propertarianism means that ownership is based on control or domination. In possession-based ownership, the owner has the right to use the property for their own needs but does not have the right to exclude others from using it. This is a key difference between anarchists and capitalists, as anarchists believe in a system where everyone has equal access to the means of production and distribution of goods and services.
Anarchist economics involves the concept of mutual aid, which is a voluntary, reciprocal exchange of resources and services between individuals or groups. Mutual aid is based on the principle of solidarity, cooperation, and support rather than competition and profit. Mutual aid can take many forms, including community-based cooperatives, worker-owned businesses, and neighborhood support networks. Mutual aid is seen as a way to create a more sustainable and just economic system, one that is not based on profit but rather on the needs of individuals and communities.